Endocannabioid System

The Endocannabinoid System

What Is the Endocannabinoid System (ECS)?

The ECS is like your body’s internal orchestra conductor, ensuring harmony and balance. It was discovered in the early 1990s while researchers were exploring the effects of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a well-known cannabinoid found in cannabis. But here’s the twist: the ECS exists and operates even if you don’t use cannabis.

Key Components of the ECS:

Endocannabinoids: These are molecules produced by your body. Think of them as the ECS’s secret agents. Two key endocannabinoids identified so far are:
    • Anandamide (AEA)
    • 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG)
Endocannabinoid Receptors:
  • CB1 receptors: Mostly found in the central nervous system.
  • CB2 receptors: Predominantly located in the peripheral nervous system, especially immune cells.
  • Endocannabinoids bind to these receptors, signaling the ECS to take action. The effects depend on the receptor’s location and the specific endocannabinoid involved. For instance:

    • CB1 receptors in spinal nerves may relieve pain.
    • CB2 receptors in immune cells signal inflammation (common in autoimmune disorders).

Enzymes:

 

  • Responsible for breaking down endocannabinoids after they’ve done their job.
  • Two main enzymes:

    • Fatty acid amide hydrolase: Breaks down AEA.
    • Monoacylglycerol acid lipase: Typically breaks down 2-AG.

Functions of the ECS:

    The ECS wears many hats, contributing to homeostasis (stability of your internal environment). Here’s a glimpse of its functions:
    • Appetite and digestion
    • Metabolism
    • Chronic pain regulation
    • Inflammation and immune responses
    • Mood and memory
    • Motor control
    • Sleep cycle
    • Cardiovascular function
    • Muscle formation
    • Bone remodeling and growth
    • Liver function
    • Reproductive system function
    • Stress management
    • Skin and nerve health

    THC, CBD, and Beyond:

    • THC interacts with CB1 receptors, leading to its psychoactive effects.
    • CBD doesn’t directly bind to these receptors but influences them indirectly, affecting pain, anxiety, and inflammation.

      Conclusion:

      The ECS remains a captivating puzzle, with ongoing research unraveling its intricacies. So next time you hear about cannabinoids, remember that your body has an entire system dedicated to maintaining balance—whether you’re sipping herbal tea or not!

      References:

      1. Pertwee, R. G. (2006). Cannabinoid pharmacology: the first 66 years. British Journal of Pharmacology, 147(S1), S163-S171. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0706406
      2. Di Marzo, V., & Piscitelli, F. (2015). The endocannabinoid system and its modulation by phytocannabinoids. Neurotherapeutics, 12(4), 692-698. DOI: 10.1007/s13311-015-0374-6
      3. Mackie, K. (2008). Cannabinoid receptors: where they are and what they do. Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 20(s1), 10-14. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2826.2008.01671.x
      4. Pacher, P., Bátkai, S., & Kunos, G. (2006). The endocannabinoid system as an emerging target of pharmacotherapy. Pharmacological Reviews, 58(3), 389-462. DOI: 10.1124/pr.58.3.2
      5. Mechoulam, R., Parker, L. A., & Gallily, R. (2002). Cannabidiol: an overview of some pharmacological aspects. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 42(S1), 11S-19S. DOI: 10.1002/j.1552-4604.2002.tb05998.x

       

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